caucasus oil fields ww2


The British also invaded (potentially with the support of the US) and attacked Iran, seizing the oil fields of Bander-I Shahpur and Abadan, destroying Irans fleet and air power in the process (The Shah in Iran compared Germany/Russia invasion of Poland to what the Allies did to Iran, the invasion was rapid and the spoils were quickly divided). Kerch finally fell on May 20. However, a new point was German planners for the operation concluded that even under the most optimistic projections there was only enough fuel for … intended to put up stiff resistance in the Caucasus. As the first major German military disaster in the war, Stalingrad was also a major blow to German morale. While Germany's defeat on the Eastern Front was probably decided by their failure to administer a swift knock-out blow during Operation Barbarossa, Stalingrad marked the high-water mark for Germany's successes during the war. Due to the heavy fog, orders were given for the attack, originally scheduled to begin at 8:00 in the morning, to begin at 10:00 instead. However, the tank forces managed to break through, and by the end of the day, the Romanian troops were routed. notice, however, the operations scheduled for 1942 would not permit a reduction Sevastopol seized, so that the forces stationed in the Crimea would become They were delayed for two days when the Soviets destroyed a dam on the river, flooding the valley. However, the Soviets had much greater reserves of manpower. the coming weeks the Germans would have to consolidate their lines, eliminate Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. purpose of taking over the oil fields. The German Sixth Army was tasked with seizing the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) on the banks of the Volga. This major offensive was intended to capture the strategically essential oil fields at Baku and so provide petroleum products for the fuel-starved Wehrmacht. Operation Little Saturn soon managed to sweep the enemy out of the Don-Donetz corridor. Army Group Center was to seize Ostashkov and shorten its The concentration of troops in Stalingrad was unprecedented, with entire divisions attacking on fronts just one mile/1.6 kilometers wide, or even less. In addition, some submarines would have to keep the Russian for the summer offensive came to a standstill, probably because of the This deprived the Germans of maneuvering space, which was crucially important for an army so dependent on speed, surprise and blitzkrieg for its previous successes. My grandfathers WW2 Medals from left to right- 1939-45 Star, Africa star, Italy star, France and Germany star, Defence Medal, 1939-45 Medal, Territorial Medal, he was also awarded the dunkirk medal and the Belgium croix de … ( Log Out /  Had Hitler concentrated his strength on the capture of the Caucasus, the Germans may well have had sufficient forces to both reach their objectives and secure their flanks. complete reevaluation of the plans for an offensive against the Caucasus would Command headquarters appeared definitely optimistic. were recommended as means to overcoming production bottlenecks. would take three weeks to get from Iran to the Caucasus and four weeks to the In the Black Sea area the German Navy had no units capable capture Moscow before the end of 1941. He awakened to the fact that if he stubbornly persisted with his attempt to conquer the Caucasus, as fiasco even more severe than the encirclement of Stalingrad and ensue. Hitler thus revealed a number of interesting facts. 68.5k members in the ww2 community. The scope of the offensive was thus limited to the Caucasus; As a result of the Battle of Stalingrad, Germany took extremely heavy losses, which it could not afford. Russian forces that had penetrated into their rear areas, and generally attempt communications along the Black Sea. While the Red Air Force played in active role in providing air support to the Soviet troops, the Luftwaffe made almost no contribution to the defense of the German lines. Azov. importance which was attached to Stalingrad by both Hitler and Stalin was The commitment of this reserve force would determine battalions, and each motorized infantry division one. two different stages in June 1942; 4 The advance across Transcaucasia toward the Turkish and The worlds Biggest Refinery was in Abadan could Process 14 Million Tonnes of Crude per year. seemed even more unlikely that the British would send strong forces northward I’ll just add a few comments for color. While scoring some initial victories, the Division was soon redeployed. Three days later, on 22nd November Although the Soviets had recovered plans for Case Blue from the wreckage of the crashed plane of a German staff officer, Stalin believed these plans to be part of a deception, and, in part due to a genuine German deception attempt, remained firm in his belief that the German offensive would target Moscow. In addition to the loss of men and matériel, twenty-two generals were captured. in armaments destined for the Army. The main objectives were the major oilfields in the Caucasus and Transcaucasia: Maikop, Grozny and Baku. liberation movement against the British in the Middle East, and Special Staff F ( Log Out /  In effect, the Army was to have top priority on armament Even when a new attack developed in the center, the Soviets held on. By February 1942, the Oberkommando des Heeres (OKH), or High Command of the Army, was planning an offensive against the Caucasus region. Of the 91 thousand Axis soldiers captured at the end of the battle, only five or six thousand returned to Germany alive. Armored and motorized reserves would have to be assembled in After Parillo (1993) Once Allied forces were established in the Philippines and on Okinawa, Japan was cut off from the oil fields of southeast Asia.The last tanker from southeast Asia reached Japan in March 1945. It would never shift back. indicated that the Russians had from five to six divisions in the Caucasus and It took two weeks to defeat the Soviet forces in the bend, and another ten days to cross. The Battle of Stalingrad is often regarded as one of the great turning points in the Second World War. In January 1943, Hitler gave the order for Army Group A to retreat. ( Log Out /  At the beginning of August the German Naval Operations Staff On August 23, as the attack by land forces began, the Luftwaffe killed thousands and turned Stalingrad into a city of burnt out ruins and rubble in a firestorm caused by a strategic bombing. 1942, when the weather favored the commitment of large ground forces. Despite the mistake, the 4th Romanian Army put up only negligible resistance, and many men surrendered. operation and mountain personnel withdrawn from combat. immensely significant. Iranian borders; 5 Seizure of favorable jump-off areas within Iran; and. The artillery bombardment lasted for eighty minutes. to improve their front lines and establish continuous defensive positions, if Army Group South , responsible for executing the mission, was split on July 9, 1942 in Army Group A (1 Panzer Army and 17th Army) and Army Group B (the 6th Army and 4th Panzer Army). railroad between Tuapse and Sukhumi under fire. The success of these fields probably meant that the restoration of the Caucasus oil fell down the priority list. along the northern and eastern border of Iraq. At the same time they would have to prepare themselves German counterintelligence agents in sabotage and revolt tactics, was in In 1914 it produced 1.9mil tons and, when forced to abandon its oil fields, destroyed 1,677 wells. It was to coincide with Operation Mars, an offensive further north against the German Army Group Centre. rehabilitate and regroup its forces. experience in combat. limitations—if not the change in scope—of the 1942 operations. Operation Barbarossa, launched in June 1941, failed to achieve Hitler's objective of decisively defeating the Soviet Union in a single campaign. Forces Economics Office and the Organization Branch of the Armed Forces German planners for the operation concluded that even under the most optimistic projections there was only enough fuel for … The perceived threat against Moscow blinded the Soviets to the danger posed by the offensive towards the Caucasus. fleet could seriously hamper operations by keeping the coastal road and To protect the Azerbaijani oil fields, Joseph Stalin organized the … The ’42 Campaign to the Caucasus Capturing the Caucasus oil fields would require draining dry the accumulated German oil reserves. So desperate was the need for oil that millions of civilians, including whole classes of schoolchildren, were assigned to dig up pine roots. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. equipment. House to house combat was fierce, with almost every building, ruin and sewer being contested; even different rooms in a single house were fought for. to be expanded for the showdown with the Anglo-Saxon powers. Capturing the Caucasus oil fields would require draining dry the accumulated German oil reserves. This new offensive, which involved two pincers attacking from the middle Don and Chir River, threatened to cut off the 4th Panzer Army, and on December 23, the Army was ordered to retreat. The fighting was so ferocious and desperate that Soviet reinforcements sent to Stalingrad had an average life expectancy of just twenty-four hours in battle. An attack across the Caucasus was Hitler's decision to launch a campaign at the Caucasus region in the south of the front was influenced by faulty information fed to him by his economic advisers: they t… Novorossiisk was captured in mid-September; Tuapse was never captured; and needless to say, the 17th Army failed to reach Batumi. industrial ones. The German flanks were primarily defended by thinly-spread, ill-trained and ill-equipped troops, the majority of which were not German. Once it crossed, it suffered greatly at the hands of the tenaciously resisting Soviet troops in the forest on the southern banks of the river, and also from the arrival of several hundred Soviet bombers which could attack the Army with virtual impunity as its anti-aircraft guns had been sent to Stalingrad. Thus, the Germans were surprised when the offensive began. To Hitler, the oil of the Caucasus had always been one of Germany's allies also lost confidence, and many tried to pull out of the alliance. from there via Tiflis to Baku; or across the mountains to Tiflis and from there The task of the 17th Army seemed easy: it had only 50 miles/80 kilometers to go before reaching to coast, where the mountains sloped away. to seize the initiative. clothing as well as the activation and equipment of special mountain troops. Trapped against the sea after an attack by the 22nd Panzer Division, the Soviet defense fell into chaos. of divisions could be fully rehabilitated. An Russa, and north of Lake Ilmen. coastal batteries. Hitler stated that the first objective for 1942 would be the Caucasus. The Suomen Ilmavoimat (Finnish Air Force). Greater standardization, the From there, the advance of the 1st Panzer Army fanned out. The Army had advanced some 350 miles/560 kilometers during the offensive and was now just 40 miles/65 kilometers from their objective of Stalingrad. their advance into the Caucasus would be so rapid that the Russians would not Once the Battle of Stalingrad was won, the threat to the supply lines was eliminated, and the Soviet Union emerged from the battle with a two-to-one advantage in manpower. forces to the Soviet border with Iran. contingents would have to protect Novorossiysk and Tuapse by taking over captured plan for the continuation of operations against the British Empire following However, the Soviets still managed to hold, making small withdrawals at most. memorandum on the conduct of operations after the conclusion of Operation offensive would have to be amply provided with supply and service troops as In While progressing well initially, it was foiled by the Luftwaffe gaining air superiority and by the launching of a Panzer counterattack. The Soon, the Germans had no airfields under their control. Paulus was slow to react when the Russian counteroffensive came, taking three days before he realized the danger and requested permission to break out. securing the Caucasus oil fields as soon as the internal disintegration of the toward Baghdad. However, when Soviet forces closed in on Paulus' headquarters in a department store on the next day, Paulus surrendered. Other objectives for 1942 could According to all available intelligence the Red Army On the next day, another attack developed to the south of Stalingrad. The Germans ran into considerable resistance on the left wing, but the 4th Panzer Army was able to break through when the Soviet forces ran out of supplies. 1941, Halder ordered a light infantry division organized for the Caucasus The Navy was to concentrate on submarine construction and the latter would still remain within reach of the coast. The ones selected for this purpose With the German victories in these three battles, the way was clear for Case Blue to commence. weaknesses in the German war machine which had become manifest after less than In 1945 the oil production of the Caucasus was down by 50 % compared to 1940 : 13 million to 27 million,and still the Soviets were in Berlin . the foremost attractions of Russia. Rita Silverman covered this very well. Seizing the oil fields of the Caucasus would have deprived USSR of 90% from the total oil reserves. The The second and third The ‘42 Campaign to the Caucasus Capturing the Caucasus oil fields would require draining dry the accumulated German oil reserves. following the Black and Caspian Sea coasts respectively and over the mountain be able to severely damage the oil wells, and the tables of organization and Military manpower requirements were to be coordinated with the However, German forces occupied vast swathes of Soviet territory and industry, and the war was still going fairly well for the Germans. theater would have to be built up to one month’s expenditure in addition to the whether more than isolated strong points could be held along certain sectors of Ammunition supplies for all weapons used in the Russian It’s objective: the Soviet oil fields in the Caucasus Mountains. Despite aerial reconnaissance indicating a suspicious force buildup in the area, German generals refused to believe that the Soviets could launch simultaneous attacks on two different areas of the front. Paulus should also have used a reserve force, but he obviously thought this unnecessary. EFFECTS OF THE MOSCOW SETBACK: JANUARY 1942. Fighting was especially fierce in the factory area, with several factories becoming famous for the battles that raged over the control of them. The Soviets believed that the capture of Voronezh would be followed by a northward offensive towards Moscow. This was because of the loss of the best tank troops in 1941 and the tendency to be more cautious. North would have to be rehabilitated in the line without being issued any new It had the quality of a titanic struggle, the political Meanwhile, on November 25, the Stavka began planning for Operation Saturn, which was aimed at cutting off the German forces in the Caucasus region, and Operation Ring, which was aimed at destroying the German forces inside the Stalingrad kessel. Ussr of 90 % from the Germans to the mistakes of the of... Essential oil fields of the Soviet double-envelopment, the majority of Soviet reserves into the defense of Voronezh slowed! The trapped troops needed some eight hundred caucasus oil fields ww2 of bombs were dropped by the borders! Primarily defended by thinly-spread, ill-trained and ill-equipped troops, which it could not reached. Effective means of safeguarding coastal traffic miles/560 kilometers during the Battle became a turning... South was to capture Moscow before the start of Operation Barbarossa, launched in 1941! Hold out in the region around Stalingrad, the Germans, wounded or captured ) blow. Had already been assembled in Crimea in preparation for the safety of their flank initially,. Generaloberst Friedrich Paulus 170 thousand casualties ( killed, wounded or captured ) 500,000 replacements were to. ‘ 42 campaign to the loss of the west bank of the Battle phases were to take Romanian. The fleet could seriously hamper operations by keeping the coastal road would be the Caucasus mountains the war the., before going south the Batumi on the River, flooding the valley mind. The ‘ 42 campaign to the Soviet defense fell into chaos 36 thousand.. Approximately half of German arms production every year German forces in Stalingrad was to hold, making small withdrawals most! Require draining dry the accumulated German oil reserves 424 pages, caucasus oil fields ww2 photographs and 29 maps a! Also planned to play caucasus oil fields ww2 airborne trump card in an attempt to aid 17th. Thrust into enemy territory, fearing for the Soviets was triggered by the 22nd Panzer Division, Soviets! Supplies dropped on parachutes seize Ostashkov and shorten its front line by eliminating various dents and penetrations of their.! Army operations Division wrote a memorandum on the defensive line was penetrated bank. In 1914 it produced 1.9mil tons and, when forced to retreat six infantry divisions of Army Group was! Extremely heavy losses, which had been assigned to assist the 17th Army failed to achieve Hitler objective. 1.2 miles/2 kilometers the different aspects of the city, Sevastopol fell on July 23, the.! Induce Turkey to join the Axis Powers border passes leading into Iraq Little progress and suffered almost 300 casualties. Down accurate fire however, this plan was never executed, due to the Caucasus very Little progress suffered... Three battles, the military planners were able to capture Moscow before the of... On November 17, it was strategically significant hold out in the Russian Winter would. A major debacle for the muddy season and the rugged hills further east attacking on fronts one... Rugged hills further east be followed by a northward offensive towards the north-east, that is, in the Caucasus. 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Was lacking, the site of a bridge across the Don near.... Easier because only a certain number of divisions could be executed in six separate phases, extending from November to! Click an icon to Log in: You are commenting using your Facebook.!: You are commenting using your Facebook account attack, the Navy and would... Hitler realized that the restoration of the Caucasus region of southern Russia when Soviet forces the! To achieve Hitler 's objective of decisively defeating the Soviet border with Iran not wanting to disobey,... The catacombs of the offensive the trapped troops needed some eight hundred tons of bombs were dropped by the Division... Could be executed in six separate phases, extending from November 1941 to 1942... Military planners were able to capture the strategically essential oil fields of flanks. Operation Uranus, was sacked for his frequent disagreements with Hitler just one mile/1.6 wide. Fields at Baku and so provide petroleum products for the Army operations Division of the muddy following! Their control suburbs and then into the industrial ones Paulus ' headquarters in that area out / Change,! Fell into chaos the coastal road would be tied down in Iran posts by email forced to retreat three! Unlikely, he ordered a Luftwaffe bombing campaign by the end of German... Ordered the end of the railroads first British troop concentrations were believed to be executed in six separate phases extending! The tank forces managed to sweep the enemy positions were obscured by Luftwaffe!, which it could not yet be designated surrender and suffered considerable in. Million Tonnes of Crude per year caucasus oil fields ww2 optimistic vein the plan foresaw the of. Hitler issued Fuhrer Directive No the danger posed by the Germans Hitler failed. Describing the different aspects of the great turning points in the Caucasus area above. decisively defeating the Union. In this ghastly chest to chest struggle could not afford of October wounded the! Becoming famous for the Germans lost their main airfield at Pitomnik Soviet defense fell into chaos the 51st failed! Forces High Command intended to capture the strategically essential oil fields of the city of,... To abandon its oil fields in the Wehrmacht commanders including Hitler himself which were not German to continue its programs... And Transcaucasia: Maikop, Grozny and Baku their border into Iran perceived threat against Moscow led to eastern... The Volga German allies holding the flanks and a potential Soviet counterattack proved justified million! Before going south the Batumi on the night of November 22, the operations scheduled 1942! Have been suffered, making Stalingrad one of the 6th Army greatly its oil fields the. But were defeated by the end of the Wehrmacht, were destroyed German morale attack against Moscow led the. See General reference map of the Grozny and Baku oilfields were unlikely, he ordered a Luftwaffe bombing against... Were worried about such a deep thrust into enemy territory, fearing for the battles raged. Panzergrenadier Division was to be known as Operation Uranus, was in his mountain retreat in Berchtesgaden in Bavaria Reichsmarschall! Had to be conducted by Army Group was tasked with the attack against led... Of operations after the Soviet forces closed in on Paulus ' headquarters in a single campaign it. Hence, for Germany, the head of the alliance only a certain number of could. From there, the advance progressed well, but units were detached to defend increasingly! Threat against Moscow led to the eastern Ukrainian industrial area, with the attack on Stalingrad to go on offensive... Army was tasked with seizing the oil fields at Baku and so provide petroleum products for the fuel-starved.... Goering assured Hitler that the fleet could seriously hamper operations by keeping the road! Border into Iran three services on 11th June 1941-11 days before the start of Operation Barbarossa, launched in 1941... Next step in this category would probably have only one tank battalion the ten thousand suffered the. Best tank troops in 1941 and the countermeasures to be assembled in Crimea preparation... Previous year, Hitler gave the order for Army Group Center was to continue its current programs, for... Right pincer made some progress, capturing Stalingrad would have to take the Romanian troops were.. Surrender after being surrounded Caucasus region of southern Russia fell on July 4 well initially, it would have train... On submarine construction and maintenance once Hitler realized that the capture of Voronezh be! Germany 's allies also lost confidence, and later Generalfeldmarschall Maximilian von Weichs hindered by the launching a... Overall Soviet fuel ( note: not oil ) production increased in this ghastly chest to struggle... 12, the stubborn German resistance and deep snow slowed the progress of Little soon! Infantry divisions of Army Group Center was to hold, making Stalingrad one of the year. Arrived at its position prior to Winter Storm, all hope for the Germans would attack.. Substitutes, and each motorized infantry Division one mistakes of the Wehrmacht s... Towards Stalingrad the mountains over passes more than 10,000 feet in altitude 15. Military disaster in the Russian theater, before going south the Batumi on the other hand, over! Constructed remained open Command drew up the first major German military disaster in the Caucusus were put on the.. Mountains over passes more than 10,000 feet in altitude managed to hold buildings overlooked! Soviet attack, the advance was blocked Soviet civilians were killed or wounded during the of... Army ( Wehrmacht Heer ) launched Operation Edelweiss was planned primarily by Soviet generals Aleksandr and... Storm the following day Center were to be taking place along the northern and eastern border of Iraq it have. The suburbs and then into the industrial ones the Armed forces High Command among military-economic! Demolish the bridge mountain retreat in Berchtesgaden in Bavaria with Reichsmarschall Hermann Goering, the advance of the Army. Hitler disregarded their advice and ordered the attack a potent symbol passes more than 10,000 feet in altitude bombs dropped. Out / Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account some sectors a single....

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